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Composite resin restorations (Tooth colored restoration)

What is Teeth Bonding?

Composite bonding is the application of a tooth-coloured composite resin (plastic) to repair a decayed, chipped, fractured or discoloured tooth. Unlike veneers, which are manufactured in a laboratory and require a customised mould to achieve the proper fit, composite can be done in a single visit. 

What is it used for?

Composite bonding is among the easiest and least expensive dental procedures. The composite resin used in bonding can be shaped and polished to match the surrounding teeth. Most often, composite filling is used for cosmetic purposes to improve the appearance of a discoloured or chipped tooth. It also can be used to close spaces between teeth, to make teeth look longer or to change the shape or colour of teeth.

Sometimes, composite filling is also used as a cosmetic alternative to amalgam fillings, or to protect a portion of the tooth's root that has been exposed when gums recede.

Preparation

No, or very little, preparation is needed for Composite fillings. Anaesthesia often is not necessary, unless the bonding is being used to fill a decayed tooth.

How Composite Teeth is Done

Your dentist will use a shade guide to select the composite resin colour that will match the colour of the tooth most closely.

Once your dentist has chosen the colour, he or she will slightly abrade or etch the surface of the tooth to roughen it. The tooth will be coated lightly with a conditioning liquid, which helps the bonding material adhere.

When the tooth is prepared, your dentist will apply the tooth-coloured, putty-like resin. The resin is moulded and smoothed until it's the proper shape. Then the material is hardened with an ultraviolet light or laser.

After the composite/ white filling material hardens, your dentist will further trim and shape it. Then he or she will polish the material until it matches the sheen of the rest of the tooth surface.

It usually takes about 30 minutes to an hour to complete the procedure. If you're having more than one tooth done, you may need to schedule several visits.

Tea, coffee, cigarette smoke and other substances can stain the resin. To prevent or minimise stains, it's essential to avoid eating or drinking foods that can stain for the first 48 hours after any composite procedure. In addition, brush your teeth often and have them cleaned regularly by a dental professional.

Risks

The composite resin we use is almost as strong as your tooth but biting your fingernails or chewing on ice or pens can chip the material. Composite fillings usually last several years before it needs to be repaired. How long it actually lasts depends on how much bonding was done and your oral habits.

When to Call a Professional

In the days after having the bonding done, call your dentist if you notice sharp edges on the bonded teeth, or your teeth feel strange or "off" when you bite down.

At any time, call your dentist if the bonding chips or pieces fall out.

Potential complications

- Pain – when a filling is done close to the nerve of a tooth.

- Allergy – rare, but the tooth may be very sore for a few weeks.

- Leakage problems – always occur after 1-2 years of filling placement. This may result in decays under the fillings. The material generally shrinks about 5% once it is placed in the cavity.

- Debonding – filling may come off a tooth if during placement the tooth cannot be kept dry.

- Discoloration – very common if someone drinks tea or coffee regularly. The material is somewhat porous microscopically.

- Wear – composite resin is not very resistant to chewing. It will wear down over time depending on how heavy the person chews, bites, or grinds at night.

- Gum disease – occurs when the dentist does not use the matrix properly to create good contact points.